The following section we will approach it from several points of view, initially giving a general vision on the origins of the optical fiber and how they are determining in its development, the organisms that regulates it at the moment and the manufacturers whom there are behind this industry that advances slow but with firm step.
Also we will be able to see in several articles of press published lately on the optical fiber this technology is Vista by the present society and as the habits of this one society can influence their development in the future. But we will not contribute single words, also we will reflect in numbers the present situation and its possible future situation basing to us on these numbers.
In years 50 the first tests with optical conductors began to take place, but until the following decade the fibers with glass covers did not begin to be used. These fibers along with the discovery of the laser in 1962 by Theodore Maiman produced a great impulse for this technology, that, really consolidated in the 70 with the construction on the part of Donald Keck, Peter Schultz and Robert Maurer (in Corning Glass Works) of optical fibers of hundreds of meters with crystalline clarity.
Fig: Comparison of the required time to obtain a film of 2 hours of duration
The first tests with these types of fibers made them in AT&T in Atlanta in 1976. These tests consisted of the fiber cable installation of 600m of length, each one of these cables contained 144 fibers. The installation of these cables was made in already existing conduits standard, reason why they had to support the own conditions that established these conduits, like closed curves and conditions to be under earth. After a first year of tests, the commercial service of voice, data communication and video began, and it did in the city of Chicago connecting two offices of commutation of the company Bell Telephone Company through 2.4 km of underground optical fiber cables .
Fig: Evolution the optical fiber (in black copper cable)
Within the world of the optical fiber several organisms or organizations exist who try to govern the evolution of this technology, in order that the effort in its development goes in a same direction and this way to standardize the new discoveries and improvements that are taking place during the time.
These organisms usually are associations of companies that try to combine efforts with the purpose of improving the technology, although on the other hand, also exist some organisms at governmental level of which they try to protect the rights of the users of these technologies, as well as controlling the intentions of certain companies that can take advantage of to create monopolies within the world of the telecommunications.
In order at the moment to include/understand better the movements of the market, he is forced to watch towards the manufacturers and suppliers of services based on optical fiber. The nobody best one than they to see the intentions of market that has this technology.
In most representative the following points we will enumerate a collection of detailing as they are his main actions within the world of the optical fiber, and as it is his positioning with respect to “the broadband” in general.
A form to see what really it is being carried out in any aspect that modifies the form to think, to live or to act of the world is the press. It is an instrument by which currents of opinion, debate and states of crisis “are created” on present subjects. Due to this, it is important to take what reactions and the news cause east type of technology in the population.
In order to begin we will take I articulate published in the supplement of technology of the Country this same year. In we can verify as they are not always the great companies or technology suppliers that make decisions, in one of the cases that it details I articulate (Nuenen in Holland), were the own associations of citizens those that financed the optical fiber implantation, since, no of the operators did at first.
If we return the glance towards point 4.1.1 we will see that the cradle of the optical fiber is E.E.U.U, this fact is determining so that it is the country of more implantation of this technology, also is remarkable that the great fiber unfolding in this country had to the televising services like motor, and that all the other services that grants the fiber network took advantage of to be entering the market gradually.
If we watched towards east, the country that excels on the rest is Japan, and in the old continent every time they are being plus the installed kilometers of cable, but the technologies xDSL still are dominant. Respect to the African continent, the implantation is minimum due to the great cost that represents east type of unfolding and, still more, if we consider the rents of the African countries.
Transferring towards the economic land the risk to us of implanting this technology he is high, since, nonsingle it is had to contemplate the payment that is made in the physical unfolding of the optical fiber, but, that also the investigation and improves of the technology is important. So that a technology can give a good service must invest in three basic points: I+D, to have a plan of viable unfolding and fast installation, and by I complete to supply good services to the consumers.
Within the range of technologies available to transmit information (data, voice, video, etc.) we have two referring world-wide ones, that they behind have to two powerful impellers. By a side the technologies xDSL that have more implantation in Europe, and on the other hand, the optical fiber that is the dominant one within North American territory.